What is the relationship between polyphenols antioxidants, flavanols and lignans?

Strawberries Strawberry
It it commonly said that antioxidants have anti-cancer properties, as well as every other health benefit imaginable, from preventing pathogens to reducing seasonal allergies.
"Phenolic compounds have diverse defensive functions in plants, such as cell wall strengthening and repair (lignin and suberin) and antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Some polyphenols are phytoanticipins, compounds with a defensive role that are not synthesised in response to a pathogen attack but rather are constitutively present in plant cells.

"Phenolic constituents occur on the surface of plants or in the cytoplasmic fraction of the epidermal cells, where they act as a deterrent to pathogens. In contrast, phenolic phytoalexins are secreted by wounded plants or in response to incompatible pathogens. The induced defense response includes cell death and the formation of a lesion that limits the growth of the pathogen. Cells around the lesion accumulate polyphenols and other antibiotic compounds."

Plant Polyphenols and Their Anti-Cariogenic Properties: A Review by Gianmaria F. Ferrazzano, Ivana Amato, Aniello Ingenito, Armando Zarrelli, Gabriele Pinto and Antonino Pollio
The average article will talk about one antioxidant such as resveratrol (found in red wine and grapes) or rutin (found in buckwheat and asparagus). The article will mention a handful of foods, a handful of benefits, and it'll throw out a handful of other terms such as "flavonoid" or "polyphenol" or "phytochemical."
This is all well and good, but it doesn't explain the relationship between all of these substances.
Hence, this page will serve as a somewhat comprehensive reference for polyphenols (which are antioxidants).
This article is still somewhat of a work in progress. (January 12th-16th 2013)
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Phtyochemicals include antioxidants.
Antioxidants include polyphenols.
Polyphenols include flavonoids.
Flavonoids include flavanones.
Flavanones include hesperetin, naringenin, and eriodictyol.
Food sources: citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruits and lemons.
Flavonoids include anthocyanidins.
Anthocyanidins include pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin.
Food sources: black grapes, and red wine.
Flavonoids include isoflavones.
Isoflavones include genistein, and daidzein.
Food sources: organic soy (not overly processed soy products).
Flavonoids include flavones.
Polyphenols also include phenolic alcohols.
Phenolic alcohols include coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and para-coumaryl.
Food sources: possibly pine-needle tea.
Polyphenols also include phenolic acids.
Phenolic acids include benzoic acid, and cinnamic acid.
Benzoic acid includes gallic acid.
Food sources: Pomegranates, rooibos tea, flax seeds, watercress, grape seed, gallnuts, sumac (culinary spice with tart flavor), and tea leaves.
Cinnamic acid includes caffeic acid, and ferulic acid.
Phenolic acids include tannic acid.
Food sources: grapes, green tea, and persimmons.
Phenolic acids include vanillin.
Food sources: vanilla bean.
Food sources: coffee, blueberries, kiwis, plums, cherries, red wine, apples, brown rice, oat groats, artichokes, oranges and pineapples.
Flavonoids include flavones.
Flavones include apigenin, luteolin and tangeritin.
Apigenin food sources: parsley, celery, rosemary, oregano, thyme, basil, coriander, chamomile, cloves, lemon blam, artichokes, spinach, peppermint, red wine and licorice.
Luteolin food sources: celery leaves and seeds, green pepper, thyme, perilla, chamomile tea, carrots, olive oil, peppermint, rosemary, lentils, black olives, navel oranges, clover blossom, lettuce, globe artichoke, dandelion, and oregano.
Tangeritin food sources: tangerine peels, and citrus peels.
Flavonoids include flavonols (not to be confused with flavanols).
Flavonols include isorhamnetin, kaempferol, myricetin, proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins), quercetin, and rutin.
Isorhamnetin food sources: almonds, chives, dill weed, fennel leaves, red onion and turnip greens.
Kaempferol food sources: broccoli, tea, grapefruit, curly raw endive leaves, cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, grapes, Brussels sprouts, and apples.
Myricetin food sources: walnuts, red wine and grapes, onions, tea, and berries.
Proanthocyanidins food sources: chokeberries, rose hips, cacao beans, berries, persimmons, grapes and red wine, peaches, apples and apple cider, pears, and green tea.
Quercetin food sources: black chokeberry, cranberry, lettuce, quince fruit, apples, citrus fruits, onions, parsley, red wine and grapes, tea, bilberries, blackberries, blueberries, dark cherries, and buckwheat.
Rutin food sources: buckwheat, asparagus, citrus fruits and their rinds, cherries, apricots, green peppers, rooibos tea, blueberries, blackberries, and mulberries.
Flavonoids include flavanones.
Flavanones include eriodictyol, hesperetin, and naringenin.
Food sources: peppermint, kumquats, lemons, pumellos, limes, grapefruits, oranges, tangerines, tangelo, artichokes, red wine and white wine, basil, dill weed, thyme, rosemary, lemon balm, terragon, chives, coriander, garden cress, parsley, and watercress.
Flavonoids include flavanols (and their polymers).
Flavanols (and their polymers) include catechin and gallocatechin (gallocatechin includes catechin just as the name implies), epicatechin, and epigallocatechin, theaflavin, thearubigins, and procyanidin.
Catechin/epicatechin food sources: Green tea, cacao beans, oolong tea, kiwi, apples, apricots, nectarines, pears, plums, blackberries, red raspberries, cranberries, cherries, raisins and grapes and red wine, rhubarb, and barley.
Gallocatechol/gallocatechin food sources: green tea, bananas, persimmson, almonds, plums, cacao beans, kiwi, apples, and pomegranate.
Theaflavin and Thearubigins food sources: fermented teas—The tea will be "black" but not all black teas are fermeneted. These two antioxidants are only found in fermented tea, not in green tea before fermentation.
Procyanidin food sources: apricot, nectarine, kiwi, pomegranate, peach, blackberry, strawberry, green beans, persimmons, cranberries, apples, cacao beans, and red wine.
Flavonoids include isoflavones.
Isoflavones include daidzen, genistein, and glycitein.
Food sources: organic unproccessed soy beans, fava beans, psoralea corylifolia (Indian bread root), kudzu root and kwao krua root.
Flavonoids include anthocyanidins.
Anthocyanidin include cyanidin (anthocyanins are glycosides of anthocyanidins)
Food sources: grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry, acai berry, raspberry, apples, plums, red cabbage and red onion.
Flavonoids include anthocyanins.
Anythocyanins include delphinidin.
Food sources: grapes, cranberries, and pomegranates.
Flavonoids include anthocyanins.
Anythocyanins include malvidin.
Food sources: red wine and grapes, chokeberries, and saskatoon berries.
Flavonoids include anthocyanins.
Anythocyanins include pelargonidin.
Food sources: raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, blackberries, plums, cranberries, pomegranates and red kidney beans.
Flavonoids include anthocyanidins.
Anthocyanidins include peonidin.
Food sources: raw cranberries, blueberries, plums, grapes, and cherries.
Flavonoids include anthocyanidins.
Anthocyanidin include petunidin.
Food sources: chokeberries, saskatoon berries, and muscadine grapes.
Phtyochemicals include antioxidants.
Antioxidants include polyphenols.
Polyphenols include a classification called Other Polyphenols.
Other polyphenols include hydroxyphenylpropenes.
Hydroxyphenylpropenes includes eugenol.
Food sources: Cloves, ceylon cinnamon, nutmeg, lemon balm, dill, and Japanese star anise.
Antioxidants include polyphenols.
Polyphenols include lignans.
Lignans include lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, sesamin, and arctigenin (to name a few).
Food sources: flax seeds, kale, broccoli, apricots, strawberries, seseme seeds and cabbage.
Antioxidants polyphenols free radicals oxidation chart reference
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Sources Of Raederle's Polyphenol Research

"Natural Polyphenols" by Duke Liberatore and Jan Mcbarron, M.D.
Note: This is where I found reference to bilberries being a source of anthocyanins.
Flavonoid Chart by Dr. Delgado
Note: This is where I found many of the food sources of various flavanoids.
"Phytonutrients: Stilbenes"
Note: This is where I got the food sources for stilbenes.
Note: This is where I found "Itadori tea" as a stilbene source.
Phenolic Alcohols
Note: This is where I found information on the three kinds of phenolic alcohols.
Benzoic Acid
Note: This is where I found the food sources for benzoic acid.
Phenolic Acids
Note: This is where I found the two primary types of phenolic acid.
Wikepedia Antioxidant List
Note: I found this in particular to find cinnamic acid food sources, but from there continued to use it as a reference for many other things included on this page.
Colors in Food
Note: I found this page when looking for the color of flavonols.
Proanthocyanidins in Common Food Products of Plant Origin
Note: I learned from reading this that there are definitely properties (benefits) of fruits that are not found in vegetables, which I personally find fascinating. I think it would be safe to assume that a reverse is true, especially when considering chlorophyll.
Phytochemicals in Foods—13 Health Benefits of Gallocatechin
Note: This is where I found plums, apples and almonds as a source of gallocatechin.
A comparative survey of leguminous plants
Note: This is where I found psoralea corylifolia as a high source for genisteim.
Daidzein, a phytoestrogen
Note: This is where I found kudzu root as a source for daidzein.
Phenolic Compounds
Note: This is where I found tannic acid as a phenolic acid.
Phenol Explorer
Note: I wish I had found this earlier on in my research on this topic. This is an excellent resource for figuring out how different antioxidants relate to one another.
What is Chicoric acid?
Note: This is where I found Echinacea as a source for chicoric acid.

Raederle's Appliance Recommendations | Raw Food Kitchen Gadgets

As a specialty health-food chef, I have a lot of kitchen gadgets and gizmos. You don't need all this stuff to be a raw foodist, or to eat healthy in general. However, having great appliances saves you kitchen time. Also, great implements make it easier to use up food that would otherwise go bad.
Find my detailed appliance recommendations by either clicking one of the following inbound-page links to the right or scrolling down.

Cuisinart 14-Cup Food Processor

The most important appliance in any kitchen: a powerful food processor. I adore my 14-cup Cuisinart Food Processor. This appliance is critical to healthy eating, whether you're subscribing to paleo, macrobiotic, vegetarian, vegan, raw or The Plant Paradox Program.
Having a great food processor is truly a blessing. It has a grating attachment, a slicing attachment and the well-known S-blade.
The grating attachment is a miracle on carrots and cabbage, making slaw a piece of cake. No more bruised fingers from wielding the old hand-held grater! I can grate a 5-pound bag of carrots in minutes with my food processor. This is great for making slaws for the entire family or for a potluck.
With the slicing attachment I can make beautiful salads with sliced bell peppers, sliced string beans, sliced onion, etc. You name it, it'll slice it. This is a huge time-saver if you've gotten a deal on a load of peppers or beans from the farmer's market.
With the s-blade I can make anything. Muesli, granola, brownies, pizza filling, salsa, pizza crusts (with the help of my dehydrator), cookies, pies, guacamole, pudding, ice-cream (although ice-cream is tastier when made in the masticating juicer), pâtés and more.
I adore my food processor so much that I brought it on my road trip with me in the Spring of 2012 when I went up and down the East Coast for two months. No appliance is a substitute for a good food processor, not even a vitamix.

Excalibur 9-Tray Dehydrator

Having a dehydrator can revolutionize your kitchen! Fill it full of kale and say goodbye to unhealthy unsatisfying store-bought chips. Kale chips will entirely change the way you think about making food at home. Easy, nutritious, delicious and so much fun.
Dehydrators are great for making cinnamon apple slices, chocolate banana crackers, spirulina bars, granola mixes, and carrot patties. You can make raw lasagnas and warm it up in a sealed glass container in your dehydrator.
If you're buying new appliances just to "eat healthier" in general, then it may not matter which order you buy them in. However, if you're buying appliances as part of transitioning to a raw diet, then the order may matter. I purchased a dehydrator first because I struggled with cravings for "comfort foods".
For the first three months of owning a dehydrator I ran it all day, all night, every single day. I kept it full to the brim, making healthy chips and crackers of all kinds.
I still love my dehydrator after years. It has never had any problem whatsoever and I've never felt that the design needed improvement.
I use my dehydrator for making my own celery salt (dehydrated ground celery) which is more nutritious than sea salt and also to preserve foods that would otherwise spoil.
If I have too many tomatoes growing in my garden, I just dry a bunch and then put them in the freezer. Dehydrated food in the freezer will retain flavor for over a year!
I use it to save money. I can buy boxes of fruit (like 40 pounds of organic bananas for only $25) and then dehydrate what I don't eat within a few days.
Owning a dehydrator is great for making snacks and storing for hard times. It makes food that stores well, packs well, and lasts a long time. All of that, and you can eat warm food that is still raw and filled with enzymes. Can you tell that I love my 9-tray Excalibur dehydrator?
I've easily saved money by buying this item. Tons of bananas and tomatoes and kiwis would have spoiled without it. I've made use of tons of carrot pulp from making juice that otherwise would have gone into the compost. Juice pulp doesn't have a lot of nutrition, but the fiber is great for cleaning out the intestines so I like to use it when I have an excuse to.
You can also get a 5-tray dehydrator but I think the 9-tray is a much better deal for the money. And those nine trays get so easily filled!
You'll also want to buy the non-stick teflex sheets for your dehydrator. These sheets are great for making things that are kinda goopy. For example, I love to mash up bananas with raw cacao or carob and then put it in the dehydrator for an hour to make it warm at 105 degrees F. That wouldn't work very well on the grid sheets that come with the dehydrator by default. The grid sheets are great for drying slices of zucchini, tomatoes, kale chips, etc, but not so great for carrot crackers, corn chips or chocolate pudding.

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Omega Masticating Juicer

The second thing my husband and I chose was the Omega 8005 masticating juicer. It is an excellent appliance for making nut-butter, ice-cream, wheatgrass juice (or any green juice) and puddings. It has two attachments, one is the "screen" that separates juice from pulp. The other is a "blank" which just ejects everything in one place.
With the "screen" attachment the masticating juicer makes juice. This is the type of juicer you use to make juice from leafy greens, wheatgrass, cilantro, spinach, etc.
Green leafy juices are not extracted very well from "cutting" which is what a centrifugal juicer does.
A masticating juicer uses an auger to squish the food making the juice come out from a mashing or "masticating" motion. The word mastication essentially just means mashing.
A masticating juicer such as the Omega 8005 is the only kind of juicer that makes nut-butter, ice-cream and juice. You can see a video of me making ice-cream with my juicer by clicking here.
We choose to buy this appliance next because we wanted to make juice that would help us detox and get more nutrition into our bodies. Click here for juice recipes I like to make with my masticating juicer.

Centrifugal Juicer

If you make a lot of juice, it saves a lot of time to own both a masticating juicer and a centrifugal juicer. Why? A centrifugal juicer will save you 95% of the time when making carrot, beet, or celery juice.
Centrifugal juices are great for cucumbers, celery, carrots and chard/kale/collard stems. However, they are not good for leafy greens, which is where your masticating juicer plays its part.
I don't recommend getting a Jack LaLanne centrifugal juicer. The appliances do not live up to the man, by any means. You pay quite a bit extra just for the brand name and gain nothing in quality. I have been pretty happy with my L'Equip, but the model I'm still using is no longer being made.

How We Chose Our Purchases & Why We're So Pleased With Them

We did a lot of research before all of our appliance purchases. We read literally hundreds of reviews. We saw that the Jack Le'Lane juicer gets a ton of bad reviews, and we discarded many juicer ideas where people complained about the difficulty of cleaning the appliance.
We each spent time meditating on the purchases and reading reviews not just because of the expense of these products, but because we didn't want to have to waste more time taking things back or dealing with customer service. By spending six hours on research, we saved ourselves having to spend six hours later on the phone with some customer service guy.

Cuisinart 6-Quart Electric Pressure Cooker

As raw foodists we don't do a ton of cooking, but having a cooking device comes in handy even as raw foodies. Sometimes we have wilting food and want to make a soup. Sometimes we see a great deal on sweet potatoes and want to steam them for a treat. During the winter my husband likes to make t'eff (a grain more nutritious than amaranth or quinoa by a lot) to keep warm.
We don't have a stove or an oven, but we do have a pressure cooker. I like that it doesn't take up a lot of space (like an oven does) and it doesn't require owning a bunch of pots (like a stove does) and that it has automatic settings to make it turn off so that your food never burns and turns black.
It cooks quickly and keeps more nutrition because the water doesn't escape. It is self-contained and doesn't require a dozen other cooking devices to do its thing.
We bought a Cuisinart Electric Pressure Cooker and have had little complaint with it. In fact, we only have one single complaint which is that we wish the pot on the inside was made of stainless steel. It has some sort of non-stick coating which can be theoretically hazardous in the long-term if the coating ever starts to flake off into the food.
Note that if you do buy a pressure cooker with a coating on it that you should always use either bamboo or wooden spoons/utensils when scraping out the food so that you do not make scratches in the coating.
Otherwise, it is an amazing piece of technology. It cooks things with an unbelievably small amount of water in an unbelievably short amount of time and because the water isn't evaporating into the air with all the nutrition, the flavor is better too!
While I don't advocate cooking often, it is practical to have a cooking device. If you're someone who is likely to "splurge" on unhealthy cooked foods, it makes more sense to own a cooking device and cook yourself a healthy cooked meal on occasion. Have a planned splurge so that you can rebel against any feeling of constraint without harming yourself with something really toxic.

Wood & Bamboo Kitchenware

Many people mistakenly believe that it is better for the trees if we buy plastic over wood. This isn't really true because pollution from plastic ruins the environment in other ways. To get truly ethical bowls and implements, seek hand-crafted wood implements made from drift wood.
The practical reason I enjoy wood and bamboo is because fiber-based implements can crash to the floor again and again and not shatter. And unlike plastic, chemicals aren't being continually excreted. Granted that some wood/bamboo treatments might not be the best for our health.
A wooden bowl that you keep for life has got to be better for the environment that buying fifty glass bowls over the course of a lifetime as one breaks every year or two. That is my thinking, since there is waste and environmental damage both in production and in consumer waste.
As a nice bonus, the aesthetic look of wood and bamboo is quite pleasing, and the overall feeling is much more natural.
I also find it nice to eat with wooden or bamboo spoons because of the nice light feel in my hand. When placing wood or bamboo utensils in your mouth there isn't that harsh metallic clang as the metal hits your teeth.

Silicone Trays

I use silicone trays for making brownies, chocolate bars, ice-cubes and truffles. I use silicone because unlike plastic is doesn't leach any toxins into the food. While silicone is more expensive than plastic, it is less likely to break, it is better for your health, and it is even easier to get out your frozen treats because the silicone is flexible. Silicone is also used for baking, but I just use mine for the freezer.
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~ Raederle

Glossary | Ingredient Reference & Related Tips

Ingredient Glossary

What follows is information on ingredients used in my recipes.
Fruits and Vegetables by Photographer & Chef Raederle
Raederle's Art for Raederle.com
Click on a food item to scroll to that item on the page.

Vegetables, Sprouts, & Leafy Greens


Seeds, Nuts, Grains & Legumes

Enjoying Food & Drink With Style

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Oat Groats

Oat groats have less fat than nuts and seeds, which means they don't slow down digestion as much as nuts and seeds. I use whole oat groats, and not "rolled oats" because rolled oats are heated (and thereby denatured).
You can't sprout rolled oats (even if they were not heated, they're still squished), but you can sprout oat groats. They're available in the bulk section of most Whole Foods. In Buffalo, NY, oat groats are available in the bulk section of the Lexington Co-Op. If you can't find them locally, order them online.

Spinach, Kale & Chard

I add spinach, kale or chard to various recipes where you might find it surprising, such as in my Berry Bowl recipe which is like a morning granola recipe, and my Green Ginger Cookie recipe which is a treat.
I use these for added nutrition. Fresh, frozen and dried fruits are healthy, but they don't contain many key things that vegetables do. Fruit fiber and vegetable fibers are different, and both fibers are important in the diet. Green leafy things contain chlorophyll, which I believe is essential to the health of the circulatory system.
One cup of chopped raw kale provides all the vitamin C and vitamin K you need for the entire day, as well as 74% of the beta-carotene, 8% of your calcium and 14% of your vitamin B6. It even has a significant amount of Omega-3 and a good ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6. It also has an excellent ratio of calcium to phosphorous and potassium to sodium. That one cup of kale is only 33 calories, and yet it is nothing to sneeze at. Click here to check out some fun ways to enjoy raw kale.
Similarly, three leaves of chard (27 calories) gets you all of your vitamin K, 63% of your beta caratene, 58% of your vitamin C, 38% of your magnesium and 18% of your vitamin E. That is a lot of vitamin E to get from a leaf. People mistakenly think you must get all your vitamin E from nuts and seeds, but that is not true.
In two cups of spinach (13 calories) you get 29% of the folate (vitamin B9) needed for a day, all of your vitamin K, and 9% of your iron. In just 13 little calories.
Add the above three together and for 75 calories you can meet 28% of all of your nutritional needs for the day, including 19% of your Omega-3 and 14% of your zinc. These are things people mistakenly think you get from meat, beans, nuts and seeds.
Also, those 75 calories (1 cup kale, 3 leaves chard, 2 cups spinach) will give you 6.5 grams of protein and 5 grams of fiber. Not to mention a lovely 30% of your iron. Iron is vital for detoxification. Detoxing is not just about fruit. It's about vegetables too.

Kiwi Fruit

The kiwi fruit is one of my favorite staple foods. They travel well and are a great source of Vitamin E, Iron and Vitamin C. I have created an entire page about kiwi fruits because they are really worth knowing about.


Celery is a food perfectly attuned to human consumption. The balance of minerals, fiber and vitamins is ideal for virtually everything a human can want. Whether you're an athlete, a stressed out student or a chronically ill person, celery is a great food. To learn about why I use celery check out my article all about celery.


I use cranberries in my berry selection because they have potent antioxidant activity, as is evident from their astringent flavor.
Cranberries only have 12 grams of carbohydrate in a measuring cup, making them a great fruit for diabetics.

Dried Fruits

I use dried apricots, prunes, figs or dried peaches because they contain higher nutrition per calorie than raisins, dates or zante currants. Dried apricots in particular are low calorie per high nutrition.

Slimcado Avocado

These avocados as far as I know have nothing special about them except their large size and unusual avocado flavor. I created an article about the Slimcado Avocado because there isn't very much information on the web about ripeness and how to use them in recipes.

Chia Seeds

I recommend chia seeds for their iron and calcium content. You can get plenty of iron and calcium from greens alone, but most people prefer not to eat that many greens. To make up the difference, I recommend chia seeds and sesame seeds.
Chia seeds have a positive ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6. Most seeds, nuts, grains and oils have much more Omega-6 than Omega-3. This causes a biological imbalance in our bodies. Eating chia seeds helps regain that balance.
Chia seeds are easy to add to almost any dish, but I particularly like adding them to Honeyed Turmeric Muesli (which uses a special dried fruit to emulate a honey flavor; this is a vegan recipe). Blend them in and you'll never notice them, or add them on top dry to add some additional crunch to this dish.
Another great place to use chia seeds is in juice recipes. Juices are easier to absorb than smoothies, and digest quickly – sometimes too quickly. Chia seeds will slow down the absorption and give your juice an interesting texture.
Chia seeds can be added to almost any dessert. Pie crusts, such as in my Blueberry Banana Pie, are an excellent place to hide as many chia seeds as you like. You can even use chia seeds in place of nuts.

Fresh Ginger Root

Fresh ginger is great for digestive health. I use it for that reason and because I love the flavor and spunk that it adds to almost any recipe.

Cinnamon & Nutmeg

Cinnamon is anti-bacterial, which is great when consuming sweet dishes. Both cinnamon and nutmeg have more calcium than phosphorous which is great for building strong bones.

Apples & Pears

I use apples or pears because they're affordable and I like the taste. Mangoes, peaches and many other fruits also work in variations of many of my recipes. However, the firmness of apples and pears adds a certain texture that I find desirable.
Apples and pears are not nutritionally spectacular, but apples do contain pectins which are known to be a boon to our immune systems. Also, the high water content is great for folks who are not drinking enough water.


Beans are something you will not find in my recipes. While some, such as fava beans, are known for having special antioxidants, often the cons of eating beans outweigh the pros. The shocking truth about beans is that they're actually not all the great for you after all.

Eating: Basic Protocol

On this page are basic tips – a protocol, if you will – for habits surrounding meals. Instead of putting these tips in the directions to each recipe, I'm posting them here above the Ingredient Glossary. These basic "rules" I'm about to explain will do well by a troubled digestion and a troubled mind.


When to drink, when to swish, when not to drink

Drink a tall glass of water forty to twenty minutes before your meal. Your digestive acids are diluted by everything that goes in to them, and you don't want to add water to the mix when you're eating or immediately after. Try to remember to drink water during meal preparation so that you aren't thirsty when you sit down to eat.
After eating, swish water in your mouth to clean your teeth. Do not brush. Do not drink a glass of water. Just a gulp.

Dental Hygiene

You may also chew celery after a meal to clean your teeth. This is a great conclusion to your meal that freshens your breath, cleanses your palate, and adds some fiber to help keep things moving in the digestive tract.
Do not brush your teeth however. The acid in fruits (and some other foods) temporarily weakens your tooth enamel. You neither want to leave that acid on your teeth, or brush your teeth. Instead, chew celery or a lettuce leaf and drink a gulp of water. Another way to clean your teeth is to use a probiotic beverage such as Inner Eco (coconut water kefir).
While we're on the subject of teeth: Tooth paste is not ideal for your teeth and some toothpastes have ingredients that are toxic to your brain. I'm not kidding.
A good dental care routine should include:
  • Brushing once or twice daily, but never directly after eating.
  • Baking soda, used up to five times a week, but not daily.
  • Mouth wash made from mixing essential oil with water and rinsing.
  • Good gums or tooth soap, used daily or every other day.
  • Brush with plain water when not using baking soda, good gums or tooth soap.
  • Rinse water with a gulp of water after meals. Don't forget to swish.
  • Consume a probiotic food such as coconut kefir or kombucha regularly.
  • Take a probiotic supplement daily, such as Dr. Fuhrman's.
  • Use clove oil on any irritation inside the mouth. (Never use alum.)
In your mouth wash made from water and essential oils, you can use oil of cloves, mint, wintergreen, rosemary, tea tree, thyme, oregano, helichrysum, myrrh, and eucalyptus. It is less expensive to make your own mouth wash, and better for your mouth as well as the planet.
Raederle's Art for Raederle.com

Closing Note

Thanks for stopping by my Ingredient Glossary. This page is an on-going work in progress. I will be adding more to this page as I continue to learn and add content to my website. If you're interested in getting updates from me monthly, join my monthly newsletter below.

Last updated: January 16th 2013

~ Raederle
It is my pleasure to bring you this ad-free, completely authentic and original website. This entire site is a one-woman operation. I, Raederle, do the HTML coding, the writing, the photography, the artwork and more. Then you come along, view my work and make it all worth while.
Except that sometimes your viewership isn't enough. Sometimes a gal has got to get paid. So now I've set it up so that you can contribute a small monthly sum (as little as $1 a month) in exchange for getting exclusive, exciting, bonus content from me.
Patrons give me something priceless for a small price-tag: appreciation. Ever heard of the five love languages? It took me a while to realize this, but there is a different form of "gifts" as a love language, and it is called financial support. That's right – it makes me feel loved. I hope that isn't too much honesty for you, because my patrons read more personal admissions from me than that!
Visit my patreon page and become a patron to immediately access to my personal revelations, coloring book pages, never-before-seen photography, inspired recipes, insider polls, and more.